Subsurface Drainage Design and Installation← Takaisin
|Tekijä||Waller, P.; Yitayew, M.|
|Sarja||Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. Springer, Cham.|
|DOI/ISBN-numero||978-3-319-05698-2 (print), 978-3-319-05699-9 (online)|
|Avainsanat||Drainage coefficient, Drainage structures, Drainage systems, Envelopes, Environment, hydraulic conductivity, Network layout, Planning, Sumps, System geometry|
|Saatavuus||Subsurface Drainage Design and Installation|
Subsurface drainage systems remove excess groundwater below the ground surface. Perforated plastic drain tubes are placed between 1 and 2 m below the soil surface. The technique was originally called tile drainage because tile cylinders were laid end to end in a trench. Spacing and depth of drain tubes as well as lateral hydraulic conductivity of soil layers determine the rate of water removal from the field. Lateral hydraulic conductivity is generally measured with auger hole tests. Drainage can impact downstream water quality because it changes the timing of water and chemical leaching through the soil. Drainage planning and design require extensive analysis of hydrology, soil structure and texture, soil chemistry, crop rotations, field equipment, topography, waterways, and construction materials. The sizing of drainage pipes is based on the land slope and expected flow rate to pipes. Pipe layout and slope is a function of land slope and discharge location in the field. If the discharge waterway is higher than the drain outlet, then a sump and pump must be installed. Gravel envelopes or fabrics protect drain tubes from sedimentation.